Case study - eruption in a developed country: Eyjafjallajökull Iceland has several volcanoes and is situated on two tectonic plates – the North American plate and Eurasian plate. This produces basaltic volcanoes when an eruption occurs above the surface (Eyjafjallajökull in Iceland) and characteristic basalt “pillow lava” in underwater eruptions. The MAR sits halfway between the continents on either side. 1994; Sella et al. However, the volcanic ash cloud affects were affected greatly by the weather as the prevailing winds, caused large dispersion to the south and south-East of the Volcano. This story map was created with the Story Map Journal application in ArcGIS Online. With the large number of signs showing an eruption was near, the volcano was heavily monitored in the lead up to the eruption. Iceland rests along the Mid Atlantic Ridge, a divergent tectonic plate boundary at the bottom of the Atlantic Ocean. The summit of Eyjafjallajökull reaches an elevation of 1,666 metres (5,466 ft) and the ice cap itself covers an area of about 100 square kilometres. This period of unrest lasted for 16 years until the volcano finally blew in 2010. All work is written to order. Seismic activity from 1991 to 2008 and GPS data from 1992 to May 2009 shows major magma movements below the volcano. Eruption is looming with increased volcanic activity, or eruption taking place with significant emission of volcanic ash into the atmosphere. This therefore closing European air space for several days (Carlsen et al., 2012). As well a contraction from 2000 to 2009 was recorded at the southern flank at a volume of 0.0015 ± 0.0003 km3/year at 5.5 ± 2.0 km in depth(Hjaltadóttir et al., 2015). This was an outcome of the eruption arising within an ice capped caldera. However, the Eyjafjallajökull eruption highlighted problems in this system and the need for it to be globally implemented across the globe. The 16 years of activity had three main seismic swarms which started in 1994, 1996 and 1999. Magma discharged reduced, with a less silica melt composition. The Volcano received a large media response and was categorized as a VEI of 4 on the Volcano Explosivity Index (Sammonds, P., McGuire, B., Edwards, 2011). Stratovolcano ; Is a fissure and explosive eruption. Lava effused out in a 3km long lava flow which made its way northwards out of the caldera down the Gı´gjo¨kull glacier (Gudmundsson et al., 2012). Eyjafjallajokull is located below a glacier. The March event forced a brief evacuation of around 500 local people,but the 14 … In this way, as the plates move further apart new ocean lithosphere is formed at the ridge and the ocean basin gets wider. The plates are moving apart at a rate of 1-5cm a year. The explosive action was relatively week but produced 2 to 4km high plumes. We've received widespread press coverage since 2003, Your UKDiss.com purchase is secure and we're rated 4.4/5 on Reviews.io. The Eyjafjallajökull volcano, one of the oldest active volcanoes in Iceland, is located in the volcanic flank zone of South Iceland, a few tens of kilometers off the nearest branch of the mid-Atlantic plate boundary. Eyafjallajokull's eruption might not yet have ended or be ending yet. From underwater volcanoes and from a mantle plume that lies underneath the area. Iceland is on a type of tectonic plate boundary called a divergent boundary. On the 18th April a change occurred that was a lower discharge phrase this lasted to the 4th May, the melt composition was less silicic than before as it reduced from around 60% to 58% and the magma discharge also dropped (Ref). Volcanoes can be monitored using varies techniques to estimate when an eruption will occur and what hazards it will present. Its peak is at a total height of 1651 metres, where there is a 2.5km wide Caldera (‘Global Volcanism Program’, 2018). But lies within a series of high rising volcanoes that’s influenced by a secondary rift zone (REF). These all partly contributed to the changes of the accumulated volume being estimated wrong, as well due to solidification and magma cooling (Hjaltadóttir et al., 2015). The E-W orientation of the rift zone suggests a tectonic control of a regional stress field with the least compressive stress oriented N-S. As these two plates move apart, magma continually wells up along the ridge, creating new sea floor. Started: April 14th, 2010 Ended: June 23rd, 2010 . However, the Eyjafjallajökull Volcano is situated just beyond the propagating rift of plate spreading in Iceland. Between 1994 and 1999 it contracted in volume of around 0.0010 km3 at a fixed depth of 5km. Pressure perturbation in the mantle may also affect the magma sources of both volcanoes. (British Geological Survey (BGS) | A world-leading geoscience centre, 2018). Along with seismic activity in the upper and intermediate crust. Following the last eruption in 1821 the volcano had 170 years of dormancy which is normal for this volcano as its usual for it to have low levels of activity with it staying relatively quiet between its intrusion and eruption phases (Soosalu et al., 2006; Jónsdóttir et al., 2007; Jakobsdóttir, 2008). Eyjafjallajökull … The impacts of flooding however were minimal as there is a relatively low population in that area (REF). More Explosive. The Icelandic Met Office were responsible for monitoring the volcano using many geophysical sensors including seismic, strain and GPS. Plate Boundaries - The Different Types of Plate Boundaries - GCSE Geography - Duration: 2:33. As the plates move apart magma fills the magma chamber below Eyjafjallajokull. The rather mild activity of Eyjafjallajökull (3 eruptions in 1100 years) stands in strong contrast to that of the neighbouring volcano Katla, which is one of Iceland‘s most active volcanoes. The low amount of eruptions can show the volcano to be quite inactive for this area as in the same time the nearby Katla volcano had 21 confirmed eruptions in the same amount of time (Larsen, 2000). Eyjafjallajokull is located below a glacier. Eyjafjallajökull consists of an elongated ice-covered strato volcano with a 2.5-km-wide summit caldera. Starting in the Arctic Ocean, it goes all the way to nearby the southern tip of Africa. Saemundsson, 1978), and their activity is only affected slightly by the plate movements. In the past, the UK has been affected by volcanic eruptions in Iceland, the most notable being the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull and 2011 Grímsvötn eruptions, which resulted in disruption of air traffic in the North Atlantic and Europe. The strong influence of the topography suggests, however, that this intraplate stress field is weak. The sudden melting of ice and snow however threatened the communities at distance to the site to the eruption (Kuenzler et al. But lies within a series of high rising volcanoes that’s influenced by a secondary rift zone (REF). Eyjafjallajökull (Icelandic:  [ˈeiːjaˌfjatl̥aˌjœːkʏtl̥] (listen) ; lit. These wrong estimates could highlight why the volcano impacts was underestimated and why it caused so much disruption from the amount of ash produced. The health affects can be shown to not be just contained within the Iceland. Creates the mid-Atlantic ridge. As for the period that the eruption took place, the number of individuals across Europe that were treated for respiratory issues increased. (convergent or divergent?) A convergent plate boundary is a location where two tectonic plates are moving toward each other, often causing one plate to slide below the other (in a process known as subduction). Others are located off the boundary, in the so called flank zones (e.g. Plate Tectonics explains what happens as the North American and Eurasian Plates pull away from each other; new crust is formed from erupted magma along either side of the ridge. The volcano went through a small subglacial stage when the eruption melted through the glacier of 200m of ice which took 3 to 4 hours (Gudmundsson et al., 2012) and this created large amounts of meltwater that caused flooding nearby . The wind caused widespread dispersal with the ash spreading over wide distances due to the wind direction and the duration of 13 days (Gudmundsson et al., 2012). 16th Dec 2019 Fissure-fed lava flows occur on both the E and W flanks of the volcano, but are more prominent on the W side. Although the 1,666-m-high volcano has erupted during historical time, it has been less active than other volcanoes of Iceland's eastern volcanic zone, and relatively few Holocene lava flows are known. Timeline of the eruption on Eyjafjallajökull: March - April 2010. As with other divergent boundaries, eventually a rift forms. This caused a mix of magma and ice which causes the explosivity of a volcano to increase in intensity (Sammonds, P., McGuire, B., Edwards, 2011). This caused short term problems being reported such as causing Asthma Attacks, increase irritation to respirate and skin and eye irritation (Carlsen et al., 2012). These eruptions were preceded by significant rifting and cracking on the ground surface, which are also emblematic of diverging plate movement. The activity of a volcano can influence the prediction of the eruption as a lot more is known about the volcanoes that erupted more frequently. As the plates move apart magma fills the magma chamber below Eyjafjallajokull. This inspection of the earthquake revealed that there was a small net volume of magma from the shallow depth of the mantle. Melt composition from Benmoreite to Trachyte. Increased unrest and more risk of eruption, or eruption is occurring, but violent explosive activity has no slowed or stopped. Eyjafjallajokull is a volcano that is entirely covered by an ice cap. It is situated on the mid-Atlantic ridge, between the Eurasian and north American plate.It is a constructive plate boundary. •Lies on the Mid Atlantic Ridge (highly volatile boundary between Eurasion and North American tectonic plates). The coupling mechanism between the volcanoes remains enigmatic. The second eruption occurred on the summit of the volcano and started at 3.30pm on 14th April 2010. This formed a 5 to 10 km high plume that changed between a steam rich white ash cloud or a dark grey cloud that’s loaded with more ash than steam (Gudmundsson et al., 2012). It’s where the North American and Eurasian plates meet, and runs for 10,000 km (16,000 miles) along the ocean floor. the volcanic systems are located at the plate boundary and their activity is heavily influenced by the tectonic movements. Eyjafjallajökull is a small volcano (about 40km2) within the chain of volcanoes in the SE Rift Zone. Astrophysical Observatory. These floods were known as the jo¨kulhlaups or glacial outburst floods that occurred on the 14th and 15th of April (Gudmundsson et al., 2012). Starting in the Arctic Ocean, it goes all the way to nearby the southern tip of Africa. Disclaimer: This work has been submitted by a student. However, the Eyjafjallajökull Volcano is situated just beyond the propagating rift of plate spreading in Iceland. 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