Article 14 The state shall continually raise labor productivity and improve economic performance to develop productive forces by increasing working people’s motivation and level of technical skill, promoting advanced science and technology, improving the systems of economic management and enterprise operation and management, practicing different forms of socialist responsibility system and improving the organization of work. practice a two-tiered system of both unified and separate operations with household contract management as its basis. Article 12 Socialist public property is sacred and inviolable. The ROC Constitution was adopted on December 25, 1946, by the National Assembly convened in Nanking. The Republic of China, founded on the Three Principles of the People, shall be a democratic republic of the people, to be governed by the people and for the people.The sovereignty of the Republic of China shall reside in the whole body of citizens. In the future, it will play an even more important role in the country’s political and social life and its friendly foreign activities, in socialist modernization and in safeguarding the unity and solidarity of the country. Ethnic Affairs Committee, a Constitution and Law Committee, a Financial and Economic Committee, an Education, Science, Culture and Public Health Committee, a Foreign Affairs Committee, an Overseas Chinese Affairs Committee and such other special committees as are necessary. Citizens of the People’s Republic of China shall have the right to, assistance from the state and society when they are aged, ill or have lost the capacity to work. Article 3. Article 92 The State Council shall be responsible to the National People’s Congress and shall report to the Congress on its work; when the National People’s Congress is out of session it shall be responsible to the National People’s Congress Standing Committee and shall report to the Standing Committee on its work. Rural economic cooperatives — producer, supply and marketing, credit and consumer cooperatives — are part of the socialist economy under collective ownership by the working people. The, of autonomous regions shall go into effect after submission to the National People’s Congress Standing Committee and receipt of approval. The state shall ensure the consolidation and development of the state sector of the economy. The 1982 State Constitution is also more specific about the responsibilities and functions of offices and organs in the state structure. Autonomous organs of ethnic autonomous areas may, in accordance with the military system of the state and local needs, and with the approval of the State Council, organize local public security units to maintain public order. Local people’s governments at and above the county level shall establish audit offices. The chairperson, vice chairpersons and the secretary general constitute a Council of Chairpersons, which handles the important day-to-day work of the National People’s Congress Standing Committee. Article 37 The personal freedom of citizens of the People’s Republic of China shall not be violated. Local audit offices at all levels shall, in accordance with the provisions of law, independently exercise the power to conduct auditing oversight; they shall be responsible to the people’s government at their level and to the audit office at the next level up. All persons holding the nationality of the People's Republic of China are citizens of the People's Republic of China. The relations between residents committees and villagers committees and primary-level state bodies shall be prescribed by law. Socialist ethnic relations of equality, unity, mutual assistance and harmony are established and will continue to be strengthened. It stipulates the NPC as the highest organ of state authority power, under which the State Council, the Supreme People's Court, and the Supreme People's Procuratorate shall be elected and responsible for the NPC. The primary emphasis is given to expanding the national economy, which is to be accomplished by balancing centralized economic planning with supplementary regulation by the market. All power in the People’s Republic of China belongs to the people. The state makes every effort to promote the shared prosperity of all the country’s ethnic groups. It is the sacred duty of every citizen of the People’s Republic of China to defend the motherland and resist aggression. Article 141 The national flag of the People’s Republic of China is a red flag with five stars. The state shall promote the common speech —, The state shall develop the natural and social sciences, disseminate scientific and technological knowledge. Citizens of the People’s Republic of China shall have the obligation to safeguard national unity and the solidarity of all the country’s ethnic groups. Article 124 The People’s Republic of China shall establish a National Commission of Supervision and local commissions of supervision at all levels. The people’s procuratorates shall, in accordance with the provisions of law, independently exercise procuratorial power, and shall not be subject to interference from any administrative organ, social organization or individual. Commissions of supervision shall, in accordance with the provisions of law, independently exercise supervisory power, and shall not be subject to interference from any administrative organ, social organization or individual. The president of the People’s Republic of China engages in affairs of state and receives foreign diplomatic envoys, on behalf of the People’s Republic of China. Article 59 The National People’s Congress shall be composed of deputies elected from the provinces, autonomous regions, cities directly under central government jurisdiction, special administrative regions and armed forces. The procurator general of the Supreme People’s Procuratorate shall have the same term of office as that of the National People’s Congress and shall serve no more than two consecutive terms. Article 66 Each National People’s Congress Standing Committee shall have the same term of office as that of the National People’s Congress; it shall exercise its functions and powers until a new Standing Committee is elected by the next National People’s Congress. [7] Xi says:[7]. When the National People’s Congress holds a session, it shall elect a presidium to conduct that session. The Supreme People’s Court shall be responsible to the National People’s Congress and the National People’s Congress Standing Committee. All persons holding the nationality of the People’s Republic of China are citizens of the People’s Republic of China. cities directly under central government jurisdiction; State Council ministers of ministries and ministers of commissions shall be responsible for the work of their departments, and shall convene and preside over ministerial meetings or general and executive commission meetings to discuss and decide on major issues in their departments’ work. Citizens of the People’s Republic of China must abide by the Constitution and the law, keep state secrets, protect public property, observe discipline in the workplace, observe public order, and respect social morality. Discrimination against and oppression of any ethnic group are prohibited; any act that undermines the unity of ethnic groups or creates divisions among them is prohibited. Another key difference between the 1978 and 1982 state constitutions is the latter's approach to outside help for the modernization program. Stated the number of candidates should be more than the number to be elected. Except in cases necessary for national security or criminal investigation, when public security organs or procuratorial organs shall examine correspondence in accordance with procedures prescribed by law, no organization or individual shall infringe on a citizen’s freedom and confidentiality of correspondence for any reason. The Supreme People’s Court is the highest adjudicatory organ. In addition, the 1982 Constitution provides an extensive legal framework for the liberalizing economic policies of the 1980s. Article 89 The State Council shall exercise the following functions and powers: (1) stipulating administrative measures, formulating administrative regulations and issuing decisions and orders in accordance with the Constitution and the law; (2) submitting proposals to the National People’s Congress or the National People’s Congress Standing Committee; (3) stipulating the missions and responsibilities of the ministries and commissions, exercising unified leadership over their work, and directing national administrative work that does not fall within the responsibilities of the ministries and commissions; (4) exercising unified leadership over the work of local state administrative organs at all levels nationwide and stipulating the detailed division of functions and powers between the Central Government and state administrative organs in provinces, autonomous regions and cities directly under central government jurisdiction; (5) drawing up and implementing plans for national economic and social development and state budgets; (6) directing and managing economic work, urban and rural development and ecological conservation; (7) directing and managing education, science, culture, health, sports and family planning work; (8) directing and managing work such as civil affairs, public security and judicial administration; (9) managing foreign affairs and concluding treaties and agreements with foreign countries; (10) directing and managing the development of national defense; (11) directing and managing ethnic affairs and protecting the equal rights of ethnic minorities and the power to self-govern of ethnic autonomous areas; (12) protecting the legitimate rights and interests of Chinese nationals overseas and protecting the lawful rights and interests of returned overseas Chinese nationals and the family members in China of Chinese nationals overseas; (13) changing or revoking inappropriate orders, directives and regulations issued by ministries or commissions; (14) changing or revoking inappropriate decisions and orders issued by local state administrative organs at all levels; (15) approving the geographic division of provinces, autonomous regions and cities directly under central government jurisdiction and approving the establishment and geographic division of autonomous prefectures, counties, autonomous counties and cities; (16) deciding, in accordance with the provisions of law, on entering a state of emergency in parts of provinces, autonomous regions and cities directly under central government jurisdiction; (17) reviewing and deciding on the staff size of administrative organs and, in accordance with the provisions of law, appointing or removing, training, evaluating, and awarding or punishing administrative personnel; and. The vice chairpersons and the secretary general shall assist the chairperson in his or her work. the Constitution of the Republic of China (Articles One through Eleven were adopted by the second session of the Third National Assembly at its 32nd plenary meeting on July 18, 1997, and promulgated by the president on July 21, 1997. The National Flag, National Anthem, National Emblem and the Capital. Residents committees and villagers committees, established among urban and rural residents on the basis of their place of residence, are primary-level people’s organizations for self-governance. It is the fundamental law of the state and has supreme legal force. Article 2 Article 123 Commissions of supervision of the People’s Republic of China at all levels are the supervisory organs of the state. The state shall practice a socialist market economy. The Constitution of the People's Republic of China is nominally the supreme law of the People's Republic of China.It was adopted by the 5th National People's Congress on December 4, 1982, with further revisions about every five years.It is the fourth constitution in the country's history, superseding the 1954 constitution, the 1975 constitution, and the 1978 constitution. Women in the People’s Republic of China shall enjoy equal rights with men in all spheres of life: political, economic, cultural, social and familial. General Provisions. The state shall, in various ways, create employment opportunities, strengthen worker protections, improve working conditions and, based on the development of production, increase remuneration for work and work-related benefits. Constitutional preambles are often not legally binding (as with the United States constitution[24]), and as the legal applicability of the Chinese constitution is debated[25] the amendment may be seen as providing a constitutional basis for China’s status as a one-party state and formally rendering any competitive multi-party system unconstitutional. The people’s courts of the People’s Republic of China are the adjudicatory organs of the state. The audit office shall, under the leadership of the premier of the State Council, independently exercise the power to conduct auditing oversight in accordance with the provisions of law, and shall not be subject to interference from other administrative organs, social organizations or individuals. except for the forests, mountains, grasslands, unreclaimed land and mudflats that are owned by collectives as prescribed by law. counties, autonomous counties and cities. Local people’s governments at all levels shall practice a governor, mayor, county head, municipal district head, township head or town head responsibility system. Local people’s governments at all levels shall have the same term of office as that of the people’s congresses at their respective levels. Article 129 The People’s Republic of China shall establish a Supreme People’s Court and local people’s courts at all levels, military courts and other special people’s courts. The 1982 State Constitution provided a legal basis for the broad changes in China's social and economic institutions and significantly revised government structure. Constitution of the People’s Republic of China. In the people’s congresses of autonomous regions, autonomous prefectures and autonomous counties, aside from deputies of the ethnic group that exercises regional autonomy, other ethnic groups resident in that administrative area should also have an appropriate number of deputies. 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