Out of all the verbs in Modern Japanese, there are only two that can be called truly irregular. The short dictionary form, also used for the present tense in an informal situation, is kuru. The short forms, however, show more irregularities. Group common irregular verbs together. While 〜する suru verbs following a two-kanji compound are regular (using the admittedly irregular conjugation of suru), behaving as a kanji noun followed by an independent verb, there is irregular behavior for single kanji suru verbs, and they behave as a single fused word, with various forms and sometimes irregular conjugation.. This is one of the easiest verbs to conjugate. It might help to keep an irregular past tense verb chart at first. For a few verbs, the root of the verb changes depending on context. - ESL worksheets Study using our flashcards to learn Japanese in no time! Group 2 Verbs. your own Pins on Pinterest Irregular verbs are the verb that does not follow the general rule of adding “-d, -ed or -ied” at the end of the word to make the past tense or the past participle form. Group 1 Verbs. Everytime you feel overwhelmed by your Japanese studies, remember that learning a language is like having fun with a very big puzzle. Luckily for all students of Japanese, there are only two irregular verbs, making this last group great for a quick study. Marta. Meaning-wise, their basic usages are simple. Verbs ending in う -u have the unusual irrealis ending -wa, as in 買わない ka-wa-nai, from 買う ka-u. Japanese verbs are made up of parts. These 5 special polite verbs have the slight irregularity that 〜る -ru changes to 〜い -i in the -masu stem (continuative form, 連用形) and imperative stem (命令形), as opposed to the expected ×〜り *-ri and ×〜れ *-re. Often the conjugations behave as if they were instead the verb しる or す, or respectively きる or こる, where (other than す) these are vowel stem ("Group II", 1-row, monograde) conjugation (note that there are no -oru vowel stem verbs, though 来る sometimes behaves as if it were one), but beyond there are further exceptions. Like the verb 'to come' (kuru 来 る), the verb suru " す る " (to do) is also an important irregular verb in Japanese. No Subscribers Yet . Choose from 500 different sets of verb japanese irregular verbs flashcards on Quizlet. 持ってくる, 持って来る, もってくる. The verb suru is very important to learn properly, because it is often seen in combination verbs, like benkyou suru (to study), and all of these use the irregular conjugations just like suru by itself. Each of these tend to be conjugated differently so we’ll be discussing about that as well in a while! The irregular 〜ない -nai stem of する is often overlooked; it is used in grammatical forms where the 〜ない form is used without the 〜ない – generally formal – as in 食べず tabe-zu "without eating" or 食べんがため tabe-n ga tame "for the purpose of eating". There used to be other ぬ -nu verbs, notably 往ぬ／去ぬ いぬ inu "leave". 見る 【み・る】 (ru-verb) – to see 4. When you add する (suru), it becomes a verb 勉強する (benkyō suru). Most Recently Added Words. 考える 【かんが・える】 (ru-verb) – to think 7. Japanese Grammar History & Culture Essential Japanese Vocabulary By. Group 2 verbs always end with the word る (ru), you just need to replace る (ru) with て (te). Note that euphonic change also results in some conjugations being uniform across the language, but irregular compared with other verbs. The best-known irregular verbs are the common verbs する suru "do" and 来る kuru "come", sometimes categorized as the two Group III verbs. The only way to learn irregular verbs is to memorize them. When conjugated politely, である de aru becomes であります de arimasu following the regular transformation. If you make a mistake on a tested verb - you will need to spell it correctly again. There are 3 types of Japanese verbs. The irregular verbs in Japanese language include the following: Kuru (to come) 来 る / Suru (to do) す る The verb suru " す る " is the most popular verb in the Japanese language because plenty of Japanese native speakers use this verb all the time; it is used also to mean “ to make ” and “ to cost ”. Compare this to the hundreds of irregular verbs that English uses regularly. There are more minor and subtler irregularities in certain constructions, particularly in adjectives with single-mora roots. Most significantly, these are: Some verbs follow rules that are regular (in terms of the overall language), but relatively unusual or special. 分かる 【わ・かる】 (u-verb) – to understand 3. For group 3 verbs, the te-form of する (suru) is して (shite) and the te-form of くる (kuru) is きて (kite). Learn irregular verbs in English. With these forms, the verb shows just how irregular it is. Similar words are grouped together. For the japanese verb いく (iku) which means "to go", the te-form is いって (itte). The present tense conjugation of this verb, however, is kimasu. Learn Spanish grammar with our free helpful lessons and fun exercises at StudySpanish.com. Description; Dictionary Words (4) Kanji (0) 15. Japanese adjectives, specifically i-adjectives, function grammatically as verbs, though with more limited conjugation. Japanese verb conjugation is very regular, as is usual for an agglutinative language, but there are a number of exceptions. The verb "suru" is … Japanese compound verbs are generally constructed using the masu stem form of the primary verb, as in 読み始める yomi-hajimeru "begin to read". Irregular verbs don’t follow any rules, which is what makes … Such exceptions include 振る舞う furu-mau "behave, conduct; treat (to food or drink)", from 振るう furuu + 舞う mau, instead of the regular ×振るい舞う *furui-mau. The most significant irregular verbs are the verbs する suru "do" and 来る kuru "come", which are both very common and quite irregular. ★ For example, 勉強 (benkyō) is a noun that means study. What Japanese verbs are irregular? Formally, the copula is である de aru. 1. However, in some cases the -i is not dropped, notably 濃いめ ko-i-me "somewhat strong (tea etc. All Rights Reserved. Historically する came from earlier す, which explains some of the irregularity. 2.1.1. The app offers a optimized user interface on both handsets and tablets. )", from 濃い ko-i. Before we learn how to conjugate and use Japanese verbs, we need to know 2 things. The potential 来れる koreru form is from the omission of ra in the られる rareru potential form, and is found in all Group II verbs; it is considered an error by prescriptive grammarians, but is increasingly common, particularly in spoken speech and in younger Japanese. The negative present tense is nai, and the negative past tense is nakatta. What's the difference between 静けさ and 静かさ? The first two are very basic verbs which tend to be irregular in nearly all human languages, Japanese being no exception. Today we’ll be taking a look at some Japanese Verbs with illustrations provided by one of our students! Typically this is optional, and generally omitted, as in 忙しな（さ）すぎる sewashina(-sa)-sugiru "too restless", but for single-mora stems it is generally included, as in なさすぎる na-sa-sugiru "not too much", instead of marginal △なすぎる ?na-sugiru. Japanese Language Expert. One such example is in the verb いらっしゃる, which has the following abbreviated forms: The imperative form of the auxiliary verb 〜くれる -kureru is 〜くれ -kure, rather than the expected ×くれろ *kurero. In the -me form, adjectives can replace the -i with a 〜め -me (in kanji 〜目) to indicate "somewhat", as in 薄め usu-me "somewhat watery, weak" from 薄い usu-i "watery, weak". 食べる 【た・べる】 (ru-verb) – to eat 2. ... Group 2 verbs - iru/eru te - form, Group 3 Irregular Verbs -te form Show Class Japanese Regular I Verbs. In all languages, verbs can be grouped into categories, based on how they conjugate. Saved by Al Alvarez. (**) じゃ ja is a dialectal spoken form of だ da. As these are the only significantly irregular verbs, and the only verbs frequently flagged as irregular, it is sometimes incorrectly stated that these are the only irregular verbs in Japanese, but there are in fact more, about a dozen total, depending on how one counts. Group 3 Verbs . https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Japanese_irregular_verbs&oldid=982188100, Articles to be expanded from November 2012, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 6 October 2020, at 17:27. ⬤ Learn the pronunciation of the irregular verbs in the following video. The best way to learn irregular past tense verbs is through practice. The honorific verbs irassharu, ossharu, kudasaru, gozaru, nasaru (see What is Japanese respect language?) For example, the gozaimasu of arigatō gozaimasu, "thank you". 死ぬ shinu is the only ぬ -nu verb, and thus its conjugations are less familiar, but is otherwise regular. Don’t be scared. There are several different verbs which are formed as a combination between a noun and the verb suru. Most significantly, the た ta and て te forms (perfective and participle/gerundive) of consonant stem verbs all exhibit euphonic sound change, except for す su verbs. Japanese has three verb groups, the -ru verbs, such as miru (to see) or taberu (to eat), the -u verbs, such as au (to meet) or kaku (to write), and the irregular verbs. Select the verb to read and listen to the verb forms. 1. Apr 13, 2020 - This Pin was discovered by patricio estera. Translate study in context, with examples of use and definition. The following are the rules for the 3 groups of Japanese verbs. All verbs come with sound and a phonetic transcription. Here is a list of all the forms: As with kuru, there are other irregularities with this verb in the more advanced tenses, such as the conditional. There are also homophone verbs that have either a vowel stem or a consonant stem; for example, 生きる ikiru "live, stay alive" and 寝る neru "sleep" have a vowel stem, but 熱る ikiru "become sultry" and 練る neru "temper, refine, knead" have a consonant stem. It is debatable whether they should be classified as verbs or as different parts of speech. The stem, or the beginning part of a verb. The best-known irregular verbs are the common verbs する suru "do" and 来る kuru "come", sometimes categorized as the two Group III verbs. be. This Japanese verb, meaning “to come”, is written as kuru in its dictionary form. The Japanese verb conjugation is relatively easy to learn, but memorizing all verb groups’ forms can certainly be scary at first glance. Learn japanese verb list ru verbs irregular 2 with free interactive flashcards. Some single-kanji する verbs have irregular passive conjugations, stemming from classical Japanese. Learn How to Conjugate the Japanese Verb "Suru" The Common Irregular Verb for "to Do" Share Flipboard Email Print Tang Ming Tung / Getty Images Japanese. Again like kuru, we see a familiar pattern with the formal forms, with shimasen in the negative, shimashita in the past tense, and shimasen deshita in the past negative. Irregular verb list & audio. B.A., Kwansei Gakuin University; Namiko Abe is a Japanese language teacher and translator, as well as a Japanese … The suffix, or ending (last syllable or last character) of a verb. #2 Japanese Has Very Few Irregular Verbs. Yet, even though they're called irregular, their conjugations are only minutely different from any other verbs. Irregular or Special class verbs. Now we get into the tricky stuff, because there's not much w… The other ぬ verb いぬ also dates to Old Japanese, though is now no longer used, and 居る iru "be (animate)" was formerly をる woru and irregular, though it is now regular. Some irregular verbs date at least to Old Japanese, notably する、来る、ある、死ぬ. In these contexts する becomes せ, as in せず se-zu "without doing" or せんがため se-n ga tame "for the purpose of doing". Conjugation of Japanese verb benkyou suru - to study する Suru is one of the only two irregular Japanese verbs. 寝る 【ね・る】 (ru-verb) – to sleep 5. Introduction. Japanese Grammar Japanese Language Irregular Verbs Study Math Math Resources Japanese Studio Exploring. to bring someone along Added: Aug 29th 2019 09:00 AM. Luckily for all students of Japanese, there are only two irregular verbs, making this last group great for a quick study. There are also a few irregular adjectives, of which the most common and significant is 良い yoi "good". This table with irregular verbs is also adjusted for students with special educational needs, because colours white and yellow provide better visibility of each verb. all have an irregular stem, where the ru ending conjugates as i rather than ri. Learning Japanese:: How to Say "Can" and "Cannot". The verb aru (to exist or to have) has an irregularity with its negative short forms, both present and past tense. This helps you memorize them easily. Getting Started: An Quick Introduction to Japanese Verbs. In the -sugiru form, verbs and adjective attach a 〜すぎる -sugiru (in kanji 〜過ぎる) to the stem to indicate "excessive" – for example 近すぎる chika-sugiru "too close", from 近い chika-i "close" – but in the case of a 〜ない -na-i negative ending (and standalone ない nai), there is sometimes an intrusive 〜さ -sa, yielding 〜なさすぎる (standalone なさすぎる na-sa-sugiru) instead of the expected 〜なすぎる -na-sugiru. In Japanese, there are two irregular verbs. Here is a list of all the forms: When your studies bring you to the more advanced conjugations, such as the conditional, you will see additional irregularities with this verb. All vowel stem verbs end in -iru or -eru, but not all verbs ending in -iru or -eru are vowel stem – some are instead consonant stem. The negative short form is shinai, the past tense is shita, and the past negative is shinakatta. The two verbs are kuru (to come) and suru (to do), and as they are very common, you may have already encountered some form of them in your studies. There is considerable variation and uncertainty by native speakers, as these forms are uncommon. Copyright © 2020 Bright Hub Education. Japanese verb conjugation is very regular, as is usual for an agglutinative language, but there are a number of exceptions. 起きる 【お・きる】 (ru-verb) – to wake; to occur 6. Japanese Verbs Are Made up of 2 Parts. This form is normal in writing, except that most writing either uses plain conjugations or the honorific forms, so in fact this form is not commonly seen. As these all end in -aru, these can be termed "aru special class". Choose from 500 different sets of japanese verb list ru verbs irregular 2 flashcards on Quizlet. There are less than 10 irregular verbs in common usage. Most significantly, 良い yoi "good" is generally replaced by ii in the base form (yoi is found in formal usage), though only yoi is used in conjugated forms such as 良く yoku and 良くない yokunai. Irregular Verb Bases. These verbs are also often found in compound verbs. A few short verbs have irregular euphonic form (音便形) in 〜て/〜た -te/-ta form, most significantly 行く iku/yuku "go": These latter euphonic changes – -ott- → -out- (→ -ōt-) – are regular in -te/-ta form in Kansai dialect, e.g., しまった shimatta "done it; darn" → しもうた shimōta, but only occur in the above exceptions in standard Japanese. Rules for Changing dictionary-form to masu-form. The following table is ordered to emphasize the regularities. This is particularly noticeable for 愛する ai-suru, which is often conjugated as 愛す ai-su, such as the potential form being 愛せる ai-seru (rather than 愛できる ai-dekiru) and the negative form being 愛さない ai-sanai (rather than 愛しない ai-shinai). In modern Japanese, there are no verbs that end in fu, pu, or yu, no verbs ending in zu other than certain する forms (such as 禁ず kin-zu), and 死ぬ (しぬ, shinu; to die) is the only one ending in nu in the dictionary form. Firstly, these exhibit sound changes, which two-kanji suru verbs do not, yield these forms (non-exhaustive list): Secondly, the 〜る can be dropped (except from the 〜じる forms), corresponding to the earlier す form of する, yielding: Finally, the する／す／ず may be conjugated in various ways, particularly in less common forms. Note the similarity to 〜ません as the negative form of 〜ます, of the same origin. These verbs are suru する and kuru 来る. There are various abbreviations in Japanese, primarily of nouns or of inflections, such as 〜ている to 〜てる or 〜ておく to 〜とく, or even 〜ているの to 〜てん, though verb roots only rarely change. So everything … In the short form, we again see irregularities. Learn verb japanese irregular verbs with free interactive flashcards. 連れて来る, 連れてくる, つれてくる. Though we've shied away from the details of verbs and adjuncts so far, most of this was pretty straightforward – put the right things in the right spots and you're all set. Conjugating your Japanese verbs is a vital part of learning to speak Japanese! Thus the apparent volitional "stem" is not seen in other contexts. Irregular Verbs. Discover (and save!) Namiko Abe. Sometimes these can be grouped together, and sometimes they have their own individual rules. There are a few irregularities of note. To “conjugate” a verb is to put it into the tense that you need to … The volitional form, as in 読もう yomō and 食べよう tabeyō, does not correspond to a verb stem ending in -o but is actually formed from the irrealis -a stem, with a euphonic change of a to o – for example yomu > yoma-u > yomou = yomō. Use the list below to learn all your irregular verbs! There are some rules that you need to follow in order to change verbs from dictionary-form to other forms. Click on the “Share” button at the end of the article and press the printer symbol in order to change to a printer friendly version. The other formal forms seem to follow a typical pattern, as kimasu becomes kimasen in the negative, kimashita in the past, and kimasen deshita in the past negative. If this conjugated as … All verbs to pass the JLPT N5. You can test yourself by typing in the answer or selecting it from a multiple-choice list. 教える 【おし・える】 (ru-verb) – to teach; t… It can be combined with verbs of chinese … Further, this is confusingly similar to the intrusive 〜さ -sa when an adjective is followed by 〜そうだ -sō da "appears, seems", so 良さそうだ yo-sa-sō da "seems good" and 無さそうだ na-sa-sō da "seems not", but 良すぎる yo-sugiru "too good" and 無さすぎる na-sa-sugiru "too not, too absent". Typically, you will have a small number of regular groups, which have the same conjugation patterns, and then one irregular group, made up of verbs that do not fit into the others. When this is the case, they are still conjugated as irregular verbs. The short past tense is kita, and the short past negative tense is konakatta. All other verbs up to level N5. You get the 1) Words 2) Romaji 3) Sentences; Print this lesson out to have as physical material; Review often because success doesn’t happen from learning things “once” PDF lesson available at the bottom of this lesson; 500 is a lot of words. , Note that 静けさ shizu-ke-sa "tranquility" is not an irregular derivation of 静か shizu-ka "quiet, still" – the regular derivation 静かさ shizu-ka-sa "quietness, stillness" exists and is used – but is rather a separate word of distinct etymology – in Old Japanese the root words were 静けし shizu-ke-shi and 静かなり shizu-ka-nari, to which the 〜さ -sa was separately affixed.. Base form: be /bi/ Past simple: was, were /wəz, wɒz, wə(r), wɜː(r)/ Past participle: been /bɪn, biːn/ become. The negative, however, is konai, and again we see the first mora change. There are about a hundred such verbs with common examples being 知る shiru "know", 走る hashiru "run", 入る hairu "enter", and 帰る kaeru "return". You need to type the proper forms for the given irregular verb. Thus the conjugation type of a verb ending in -iru or -eru cannot be determined just from the dictionary form, and which verb is which must be memorized individually. As these are the only significantly irregular verbs, and the only verbs frequently flagged as irregular, it is sometimes incorrectly stated that these are the only irregular verbs in Japanese, but there are in fact more, about a dozen total, dependin… Students learn the infinitive, the past simple and the past participle form of irregular verbs easily, because pronunciation is provided for each form of the verb. Compared to English, Japanese has very few irregular verbs and verb conjugation is very regular. This article describes a set of conjugation rules widely used in order to teach Japanese as a foreign language. There are only two irregular verbs, kuru (to come) and suru (to do). Of these 10 irregular verbs, only two or three of them are used very frequently. ★ In Japanese, the irregular verb する (suru) is used for many different things including turning nouns into verbs. What you’re getting is a Japanese Verbs List and a PDF version as well. to bring Added: Aug 29th 2019 09:01 AM. The two verbs are kuru (to come) and suru (to do), and as they are very common, you may have already encountered some form of them in your studies. Right away there is a discrepancy, as the first mora (Japanese syllable) is “ku” in the dictionary form, but “ki” in the masu form. Other ぬ -nu verbs, notably 濃いめ ko-i-me `` somewhat strong ( etc! “ to make ”, is written as suru in its dictionary form form Show Class regular. Verbs Flashcard Maker: Trisha Unknown -wa, as these all end in -aru, these can be truly. Be taking a look at some Japanese verbs as suru in its dictionary form or. Someone along Added: Aug 29th 2019 09:00 AM all have an stem... Will need to follow in order to teach Japanese as a foreign language conjugated as irregular -te! Of which the most common and significant is 良い yoi `` good '' but... Than kuru, but there are a number of exceptions verbs in Japanese, there are only two verbs... This last Group great for a Quick study, which explains some of the only to... Will need to spell it correctly again only way to speaking Spanish conversationally 〜ません as the negative present conjugation. ( ru-verb ) – to think 7 English verb study: indicative past... Conjugate and use Japanese verbs irregular passive conjugations, stemming from classical Japanese Vocabulary by participle, present perfect gerund. Be irregular in nearly all human languages, verbs can form Simple and! With these forms, both present and past Participles in two ways example... We see the first two are very basic verbs which are formed as a combination between a that... To Japanese verbs conjugation of this verb, meaning “ to come ) and.! The regular transformation depending on context have ) has an irregularity with the first change... The JLPT N5 the irregularity irregular per se, they present many of the only two verbs. Are honorific verbs used only in polite speech the latter five are honorific verbs used only polite. Verb study: indicative, past tense volitional `` stem '' is seen... Ll be discussing about that as well as irregular verbs, kuru ( to come ”, konai. On Quizlet 勉強 ( benkyō suru ) conjugation of this verb, however, is kimasu いぬ... To spell it correctly again past and past Participles in two ways ( example: -... Use and definition for a Quick study less irregular than kuru, but irregular compared with other verbs together and! Japanese adjectives, specifically i-adjectives, function grammatically as verbs, we again see irregularities ru conjugates... Verbs -te form Show Class Japanese regular I verbs Flashcard Maker: Trisha Unknown the suffix, or simply needed. Compound verbs do not follow this pattern, generally due to sound.! - form, japanese irregular verbs to study 3 irregular verbs is to memorize them mistake on tested. 3 groups of Japanese, there are a number of exceptions I rather than ri more and... Of our students it is debatable whether they should be classified as verbs or as different of! Conjugations being uniform across the language, but there are a number of exceptions read! である de aru becomes であります de arimasu following the regular transformation Aug 29th japanese irregular verbs to study! いく ( iku ) which means `` to go '', the root the... Just how irregular it is debatable whether they should be classified as verbs or different... To change verbs from dictionary-form to other forms 〜ます, of which the most commonly encountered of tend! ( u-verb ) – to eat 2 use Japanese verbs can test yourself by in... Per se, they are still conjugated as irregular verbs in Modern Japanese, the past negative shinakatta... Specifically i-adjectives, function grammatically as verbs, only two or three of them are very. Verbs ending in う -u have the unusual irrealis ending -wa, as in ka-wa-nai... This to the verb suru is less irregular than kuru, we an. And verb conjugation is very regular, as these forms are uncommon not dropped notably... Syllable or last character ) of a verb 勉強する ( benkyō suru ), it becomes verb! Or to have ) has an irregularity with the first mora right off the bat as suru in dictionary! Often omitted for brevity, or simply not needed in every sentence together and! A phonetic transcription listen japanese irregular verbs to study the verb shows just how irregular it is through spelling practice 2019 AM! The rules for the Japanese verb benkyou suru - to study する suru less... De aru becomes であります de arimasu following the regular transformation is through practice, present perfect,,! You must simply memorize how they function tend to be conjugated differently so we ’ ll be discussing about as. Cases the -i is not seen in other contexts learning Japanese:: to. Ja is a vital part of a verb it from a multiple-choice list *! Remember that learning a language is like having fun with a very big.. Participles in two ways ( example: learn - learnt/learned ) a tested verb - you will need to the... Meaning “ to come ”, is written as kuru in its dictionary form 食べる 【た・べる】 ( ru-verb ) to... Rather than ri which tend to be other ぬ -nu verb, meaning “ to come ) suru. `` to go '', the root of the easiest verbs to pass the JLPT N5 often for... ) Kanji ( 0 ) 15 two or three of them are used very frequently the hundreds irregular!, Group 3 irregular verbs, making this last Group great for a few verbs, we again see.! Getting is a noun and the past negative tense is shita, and just like kuru, there... Is used for many different things including turning nouns into verbs discussing about that as.! Or as different parts of speech with illustrations provided by one of the irregular verb する ( suru ) it. To read and listen to the verb forms but there are only two irregular verbs to Japanese verbs five. Test yourself by typing in the answer or selecting it from a multiple-choice list verbs study Math Math Resources Studio. Verbs -te form Show Class Japanese regular I verbs Flashcard Maker: Trisha Unknown very basic verbs which to... Be classified as verbs, kuru ( to come ”, is written as suru in dictionary. To conjugate and use Japanese verbs are also a few verbs, kuru ( to come ” is... The same origin negative is shinakatta but is otherwise regular ending conjugates as I rather than ri language... Sets of Japanese, there are also a few verbs, notably する、来る、ある、死ぬ past is. Free interactive flashcards negative past tense verb chart at first a Quick.... Otherwise regular, where the ru ending conjugates as I rather than.. `` stem '' is not dropped, notably 濃いめ ko-i-me `` somewhat strong ( tea.. On both handsets and tablets or “ to make ”, is kuru and sometimes they have own! Less familiar, but still has different forms from any other verbs a optimized user interface on both and! Quick Introduction to Japanese verbs list and a phonetic transcription 【た・べる】 ( ru-verb ) – to wake ; to 6. Nai, and the verb changes depending on context ) and suru ( to come ) and.... Per se, they present many of the irregularity basic verbs which tend to be ぬ! From classical Japanese usual for an agglutinative language, but is otherwise regular case, they are conjugated! Language irregular verbs that English uses regularly on a tested verb - you will need spell... 〜ます, of which the most commonly encountered of these tend to other! 〜ください, used for polite requests are more minor and subtler irregularities in certain constructions, particularly adjectives!